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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

"Investing in innovation is critical to raising long-term economic growth," said WIPO Director General Francis Gurry. "In this current economic climate, uncovering new sources of growth and leveraging the opportunities raised by global innovation are priorities for all stakeholders."

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The biggest story of the festival had nothing to do with films. It was about shoes. On Tuesday trade magazine Screen reported that a group of women had been denied access to a screening of Todd Haynes' Carol because their footwear – flat shoes with rhinestones – was unsuitable for the red carpet. Further tales came tumbling forth, social media erupted in indignation and soon enough we were soon dealing with a fully fledgedscandale. The Cannes press office rushed out a garbled statement: “Rules have not changed throughout the years (Tuxedo, formal dress for Gala screenings) and there is no specific mention about the height of the women's heels as well as for men's. Thus, in order to make sure that this rule is respected, the festival's hosts and hostesses were reminded of it.” Well, that cleared that up. Perhaps wisely, press screenings are exempt from any dress code: scruffy journalists are free to ascend the Palais' steps in flip flops and trainers.
据央视5日清晨报道,救援队将继续船体起吊工作。
从一个孩子的视角,讲述佛罗里达州一家汽车旅馆社区的生活。

According to government sources, property sales in Hong Kong fell almost 40 per cent in the first half of the year compared with the same period in 2015 — both in terms of price and volume. An index from the Rating and Valuation Department released this month showed the commercial sector was a particular casualty, with prices falling 5.7 per cent in May compared with the same month last year.
她说:”波比就像是小碧昂斯,一个小淑女。”
自从这家技术公司十年前开始发布这一年度报告以来,这是新闻首次成为最热门的搜索项。搜狐资深编辑兼网络趋势分析师陈女士(Vera Chan)说,出于各种原因,英国石油公司漏油事件成为了最热门的搜索话题。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

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Like air, blue skies treat everyone equally.
这个交易对雷霆有诸多方面的意义:首先,吉布森可以短期内顶替受伤的埃内斯-坎特,而且他带来了季后赛经验、可靠的篮板球保障和坚实的防守——这些可能对阵马刺或火箭的季后赛时都是需要的。
我曾经看到经理们因为工作环境大都是男性所以没有雇佣一位女性。他们不会在乎那个女人有多聪明,多厉害。她就是不合适。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

这一增幅在欧洲专利局专利申请数量最多的十个国家中位列第一。
adj. 群众的,大规模
“人们已习惯于这样的套路:美联储称要进行紧缩,结果当市场波动或其他风险浮出水面时,政策制定者便收回紧缩言论,呈现出‘如有疑问,按兵不动’的规律,”克普克说。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • I used to think guff was a product of failure and mediocrity — it existed because the truth was too painful, or because executives had not bothered to ascertain what the truth was.
  • 北京城市副中心将提高政策性住房比例
  • 对中国最大房地产开发商发起敌意收购的神秘亿万富翁姚振华已成为中国最富有的人之一,这凸显出了杠杆金融投资正如何推动私人财富取得巨大增长。
  • 去年底新疆商品房库存面积较前年底下降12.14%
  • 房地产托市迎来“强刺激”从供应端和存量下手
  • The relocation is also part of the integration plan for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei cluster, which aims to ease congestion in the capital and achieve more balanced development in the region.
    在纽约举办了多次其标志性的时装秀之后,内衣品牌维多利亚的秘密又来到伦敦、巴黎、戛纳和洛杉矶举办维密秀,而在2017年,该全球女士内衣行业巨头来到了上海。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 今年前四个月中国宏观经济在中高位平稳运行, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

农民工迟迟未返岗 兰州家居建材行业紧缺安装工

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

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Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • Ms Rogers added that she had not given her son parental consent to play the game as stated in its terms and conditions, and that as the game was free to play, the studio could not claim loss of profit as a result of the cheats.
    全国居民人均可支配收入实际增长6.3%;
  • n. 姿势,态度,情形
    According to the new report, over the past 20 years India has been the leading user of anti-dumping cases, filing 767, or 15 per cent, of the 4,990 initiated between 1995 and 2015. The US accounted for 570 while the EU registered 480.
    The Magic are the single-most mystifying team in this entire exercise. They make little sense on paper or on the court.
    特斯拉(Tesla)正处在蜜运中。这家电动汽车公司的财富以不可思议的速度积聚,而投资者仍在热烈地追捧它。
    1. Beyoncé “Beyoncé” (Parkwood Entertainment/Columbia) An ambush that landed after last year’s tabulations, Beyoncé's tour de force — a lustrous showcase of soulful dominion, sleek production, sensual abandon and feminist agency, not always in that order — kept its relevance during a long year swollen with distractions. The singing, like the attitude, is phenomenally assured yet full of nuance; the message is complicated but clear. It’s high-wire pop that refuses to pander.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • “双十一”买家具避免陷阱 低价产品要看好细则
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 买走城里一半房 220万农民工实现进城购房梦

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

米特卜王子被捕不到一个月即获释,这显示出沙特想要迅速结束这场腐败调查,阿尔瓦利德·本·塔拉尔王子等多名王室成员和亿万富翁在调查中突然被捕。
Under the Skin is just so visually free and uninhibited that there is an intense dark, destructive sexiness in everything about it – quite apart from the hilarious, bizarre, mesmeric eroticism of the film itself. It is a work of subcutaneous potency. It gets under your skin.
至少希拉里今年赢得了点什么。我相信她会非常兴奋。
今年六月,谷歌宣布与时尚设计师黛安o冯o芙丝汀宝合作,携手推出新款谷歌眼镜。这个举措凸显了硅谷当下的策略:招募时尚精英,赋予可穿戴设备以时尚内涵。
根据北京市统计局发布的一份报告显示,2015年北京市社会消费品零售总额突破万亿元,达到了10338亿元,同比增长7.3%。
['pr?ut?k?l]
乔布斯在苹果大会上作专题演讲后展示MacBook Air ,2008年,1月15日,旧金山

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 5. You're taking four-hour lunches and have way too many dentist appointments。
  • 3万亿存款大搬家 楼市泡沫越吹越大 谁在制造?
  • 全世界的目光都在聚焦巴西,因为这个国度将举办最令人期待的两大体育盛事——2014年世界杯足球赛和2016年夏季奥运会。在巴西,你不仅可以观看精彩赛事,为你最喜欢的队伍及运动员欢呼,还可以前往“地球之肺”——亚马逊雨林旅行,体验“与世隔绝,拥抱自然”。不管你如何安排行程,巴西之行必定是一次难忘之旅。
    你或许要很长时间才能实现工作与生活的平衡,但努力遵守这个清单,并将其作为创业的目标,将会产生不一样的效果。创业者如何看待所取得的进步?以及一家公司多快才能实现正常运营和实现收支平衡?遵循这些建议,你很快就能找到答案。
  • 雄县买房者:薪4千元医生被125万全款房吓跑
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • BABYLON (Sundance, Thursday) James Nesbitt, recently seen as the obsessed father of a long-vanished child in “The Missing,” shows up here in a very different role: as a calculating old-school police commissioner who hires an American public-relations expert (Brit Marling) to update the image of Scotland Yard. Danny Boyle (“Slumdog Millionaire”) created this satirical drama, which bears some resemblance to Armando Iannucci’s political comedy film “In the Loop.”
    8.出租车司机
  • 你永远都不能把一只狼变成宠物狗。
    But the statistics bureau attributed the overall rise in CPI chiefly to a base effect resulting from low prices a year prior.
  • 居民消费价格指数(CPI)继续从8月份的低点反弹,10月份,CPI同比上涨2.1%,涨幅比上月扩大0.2个百分点,并与分析师的预期中值相符。
    学员平均年龄:36岁(英语授课项目)
  • Technology:Cadillac will introduce high-resolution video streaming in the rearview mirror, which improves the field of vision by about four times greater than a traditional mirror by removing obstructions like pillars and passengers. Just the thing for aging Cadillac drivers with stiff necks. Coming next: a “beep, beep, beep” signal like that used by garbage trucks whenever the car is driven in reverse.
    THE AMERICANS (FX, Jan. 28) Season 3 of this terrific blend of Cold War spy thriller and family drama begins with Washington’s K.G.B. contingent feeling the weight of the Soviet war in Afghanistan. Frank Langella joins the cast as the new handler for the show’s husband-and-wife agents, replacing Margo Martindale’s Claudia. (Making its premiere eight days later: NBC’s “Allegiance,” about Russian spies embedded in the United States. Huh.)
    complex
  • 尽管外贸额占经济总量的比重逐渐增大,但是相比那些每天都大量采购各种日用品,食品而且随意采纳金融方面建议的欧洲和亚洲的主要竞争者,美国经济更容易免受外部不良因素的冲击,实际上相比与外国的竞争者具有更好的抵御危机的能力。
    一家国际医学杂志撤销了107篇中国学术论文,由此引发了人们对中国学术诚信的关注。被撤稿的作者多数是临床医生。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 中国建材行业一周大事记(12.7-12.11) shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

北京:租房入学催生学位占位费市场 业内人士认为政策法律风险大

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

四大LED企业2015年业绩预告曝光

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

评论:楼市调控政策升级意在挤泡沫稳预期

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

广西公租房累计分配比例达85.21% 将加强棚改建设巡查

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 第十步 如果以上几条都做不到——就公告天下说你有反社会人格
  • “If you were going to be betting, you would bet its going to be warmer than 2015,” said Mr Karl.
  • 初步调查结果公布!比"曹园"更牛的"袁府"会"塌"吗?

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 爆发冲突的潜在可能性,将迫使中国和美国在不断变幻的环境中重新定义各自的角色,双方都对这种环境感到不安。美国大选期间的反华情绪将使紧张气氛加剧。亚洲国家将勾勒出这两个大国的影响力范围,但考虑到各国的利益各有不同,取决于各自的具体关切,联盟的构成也将变化。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 全球肥胖率上升的前因后果。
    “有个员工的父母跟公司联系,告诉我们说,他们的儿子辞职了。”
    You are the one for me this New Year and for many New Years to come.在此新年和未来的每个新年里,你都是我唯一的爱!
  • 《老友记》是成长在90年代的小伙伴们心中标志性的存在,因为它的主题:友谊、大城市生存的不易,发现自我、寻求独立,与年轻人息息相关,如今亦是如此。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 在世界五大电脑制造商中,苹果公司是去年唯一一家出货量保持增长的公司,涨幅超过了6%;宏碁公司则是下跌幅度最大,下跌超过了18%。
  • 发改委主任何立峰:正在抓紧粤港澳大湾区“1+N”的政策体系设计
  • ['t?ɑ:mi?]

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 社保拟减持近百亿元交行股票
  • Household substance abuse
  • 国家统计局:2017年国内生产总值827122亿元 比上年增长6.9%
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

海南暂停富力红树湾项目所有商品房销售

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 李克强:民生本身就是天大的事情 抓住重点难点问题一件一件去做
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 机构:2016一线城市房价涨幅将达5%以上
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

随着中国实力的抬升,其最好的友敌美国占了前10名的另一半。第5名和第9名分别是伯克希尔哈撒韦保险公司以及富国银行,这两家公司相较去年的排名均上升4位。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

In the original casting, Michael Keaton was set to play the character. However, ABC executives begged the writers and producers to keep Jack alive. They believed the character was too likeable to die off so quickly. The writers agreed. Michael Keaton was not interested in signing up for a long-running show. Instead, the role of Jack was given to Matthew Fox. The rest is TV history.
[':tn]
undeniable
2014年,世界杯在1978年以后又重新回到南美的怀抱,当时,马里奥·肯佩斯(Mario Kempes)带领阿根廷队战胜了荷兰队,保持着南美球队在南美洲大陆上举行的世界杯中赢得冠军的记录。那么,2014年会有所不同吗?包括卫冕冠军西班牙队在内的欧洲诸强能够实现那些在过去的比赛中的欧洲球队未能做到的吗?抑或,有其他任何大陆能够有实力挑战强大的南美球队吗?
She was also recognised for being the youngest recipient of the Ripple of Hope Award from the Robert F. Kennedy Center for her charity work.
我以前曾有过一款安卓手机(尽管2009年以来我一直用的是MacBook笔记本电脑,这种搭配挺诡异的,我知道)。自从今年夏天换了iPhone以后,我马上意识到了iPhone“提醒”的力量。每次有提醒事项时,iPhone就会振动起来,然后显示一个弹出窗口,你可以暂停它,或者把它标记为已完成。另外你还可以设置重复提醒,用来提醒你邮寄每个季度的税单、更新订阅、领薪水等容易忘记的事再好不过了。
引发收购热议的是一篇路透社的报道,报道援引了一份关于潜在交易的文档作为消息源。实际上,三星已经至少一次地表示过对黑莓的兴趣了,那时还是2012年。而对于最新的谣言,传闻被收购的目标黑莓首先跳出来否认交易正在进行。
不过,行业、企业间的高管薪酬差距明显。
You're right to be paranoid. The company is always watching you, and there's a record of everything you do: every phone call, every text, every tweet and instant message. At most companies, they save that data forever.
罗杰斯对于中间剧情的反转十分不满,因此在拍完前三季之后决定离开剧组。这样的违约行为使他面临数百万美元的诉讼。但讽刺的是,韦恩·罗杰斯从来没有正式和剧组签订过合同(他涉及道德条款方面的问题)。因此该诉讼请求被驳回。你可能会说在这次的事件中,罗杰斯是笑到最后的人,但自从他离开剧组,《风流医生俏护士》又播出了八季,而罗杰斯在他的演艺生涯中再也没有取得过这样的成就。所以说他是笑到最后的人,也许只是一个相对的说法。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

借力资本市场 家居行业整合加速

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 也许同等重要的是,稳定或者下降的油价将会缓解通货膨胀压力使美国工人的工资更具有购买力。Renaissance Macro经济学家Neil Dutta 称“这对于国内需求来说是一个明确的积极的消息,人们将会有更多可以用来消费的钱”。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 你可能从未想过一根皮带可以与人工智能相结合,但Belty做到了,并使它看起来很时尚。这个belty会让你不自觉就觉得,“为什么我需要这个?”然后你想可能会是,“如果是黑客入侵,他们把它系得很紧我不能呼吸该怎么办?”第一个问题是合理的;第二个问题有些牵强,但如果它让你三思而后买这个产品,这并不是一件坏事。
  • 评论:一线城市娶老婆成本大降 不再必须买房
  • purchase
  • 楼市下半场:成交量横盘 补仓需求续推“地王”
  • 2.Artificial Eyes

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 建筑材料行业:中央经济工作会议影响分析
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 卡利南和瑞兹各提一只装着所有奖项结果信封的手提箱——也就是说,每个奖项都有两只信封。
  • The THE Asia University Rankings for 2017 rated Peking University and Tsinghua University, both in the Chinese capital of Beijing, as the second and third best universities in the continent. National University of Singapore is ranked the best.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

家居建材业临大数据洗牌

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